Bharat Ratna is the Highest Civilian Award of Republic of India. This most prestigious award of Indian Republic includes artistic, literary, and scientific achievements, as well as “recognition of public service of the highest order.”. Holder of Bharat Ratna does not carry any special title like “Sir title” is there for Knights, but they do have a place in the Indian order of precedence.
Dr. Rajendra Prasad (First prsident of India) established this award on 2 January 1954. Along with other major national honours, such as the Padma Vibhushan, Padma Bhushan and Padma Shri, the awarding of the Bharat Ratna was suspended from 13 July 1977 to 26 January 1980.
There is no such creiteria that recipients of the Bharat Ratna should be Indian citizens, this general assumption is not correct. Several recipients of this award doesn’t basically belong to India like, Mother Teresa (1980), and to two non-Indians, Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan (1987) and Nelson Mandela (1990). The awarding of this honour has frequently been the subject of litigation questioning the constitutional basis of such.
Originally, the specifications for the award called for a circular gold medal carrying the state emblem and motto, among other things. It is uncertain if a design in accordance with the original specifications was ever made. The actual award is designed in the shape of a peepul leaf and carries with the words “Bharat Ratna”, inscribed in Devanagari script. The reverse side of the medal carries the state emblem and motto. The award is attached to a 2-inch-wide (51 mm) ribbon, and was designed to be worn around the recipient’s neck.
The only case where award is withdrawn is of Subhash Chandra Bose. Indian freedom fighter Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose was awarded Bharat Ratna posthumously in 1992. The award was later withdrawn due to a legal technicality. It was withdrawn in response to a Supreme Court of India directive following a Public Interest Litigation filed in the Court against the posthumous nature of the award. The Award Committee could not give conclusive evidence of Bose’s death and thus it invalidated the posthumous (after death) award.
Bharat Ratan is last awarded in 2009, and till date a total of 41 personality got this award. we are presenting here the list of the name of those personalities.
List Of Award Winners
2008: Bhimsen Joshi (1922-2011) – Hindustani classical singer
2001: Bismillah Khan (1916-2006) – Hindustani classical shehnai player
2001: Lata Mangeshkar (1929) – Playback singer
1999: Gopinath Bordoloi (1890-1950) – Awarded after his death. Freedom fighter and Chief Minister of Assam
1999: Amartya Sen (1933) – Economist and Nobel Prize winner
1999: Ravi Shankar (1920) – Sitar player
1999: Jayaprakash Narayan (1902-1979) – Awarded after his death. Freedom fighter and politician
1998: Chidambaram Subramaniam(1910-2000) – Freedom fighter and Minister of Agriculture
1998: M.S.Subbulakshmi (1916-2004) – Classical carnatic singer
1997: Aruna Asaf Ali (1908-1996) – Awarded after his death. Freedom fighter
1997: Gulzarilal Nanda (1898-1998) – Freedom fighter and interim Prime Minister
1997: A.P.J Abdul Kalam (1931) – Aeronautical Engineer and 11th President of India
1992: Satyajit Ray (1922-1992) – Famous filmmaker
1992: J.R.D. Tata (1904-1993) – Industrialist and philanthropist
1992: Abul Kalam Azad (1888-1958) – Awarded after his death. Freedom fighter and first Minister of Education
1991: Morarji Desai (1896-1995) – Freedom fighter and 5th Prime Minister of India
1991: Vallabhbhai Patel (1875-1950) – Awarded after his death. Freedom fighter and first Home Minister of India
1991: Rajiv Gandhi (1944-1991) – Awarded after his deatch. 7th Prime Minister of India
1990: Nelson Mandela (1918) – Second non-citizen and first non-indian recipient from South Africa
1990: B.R. Ambedkar (1891-1956) – Awarded after his death. Chief architect of the Indian Constitution, economist and politician
1988: M.G Ramachandran (1917-1987) – Awarded after his death. Film actor and Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu
1987: Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan (1890-1988) – Freedom fighter and first non-citizen
1983: Vinoba Bhave (1895-1982) – Awarded after his death. Freedom fighter and social reformer
1980: Mother Teresa (1910-1997) – Catholic nun, founder of the Missionaries of Charity and Nobel Prize winner
1976: K Kamaraj (1903-1975) – Awarded after his death. Freedom fighter and Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu
1975: V.V Giri (1894-1980) – 4th President of India
1971: Indira Gandhi (1917-1984) – 4th Prime Minister of India. First and till date the only lady Prime Minister of India
1966: Lal Bahadur Shastri (1904-1966) – Awarded after his death. Freedom fighter and 2nd Prime Minister of India
1963: Pandurang Vaman Kane (1880-1972) – Sanskrit scholar
1963: Zakir Hussain (1897-1969) – Scholar and 3rd President of India
1962: Dr. Rajendra Prasad (1884-1963) – Freedom fighter and first President of India.
1961: Purushottam Das Tandon (1882-1962) – Freedom fighter and scholar
1961: Bidhan Chandra Roy (1882-1962) – Physician and Cheif Minister of West Bengal
1958: Dhondo Keshav Karve (1858-1962) – Educator and social reformer
1957: Govind Ballabh Pant (1887-1961) – Freedom fighter and Cheif Minister of Uttar Pradesh
1955: Jawaharlal Nehru (1889-1964) – Freedom fighter, author and first Prime Minister of India
1955: M Visvesvarayya (1860-1962) – Civil engineer
1955: Bhagwan Das (1869-1958) – Freedom fighter and author
1954: Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan (1888-1975) – Philosopher and 2nd President of India
1954: C.V Raman (1888-1970) – Physicist and Nobel Prize winner
1954: Chakarvarti Rajagopalachari (1878-1972) – Freedom fighter and last governor-general